Avoiding the Chasm

April 13, 2008

Fair Use for BT Unlimited Broadband Traffic Shaping

Filed under: Media, Technology — Tags: , , , , — vextasy @ 8:27 am

gn_logoHave you ever noticed large variations in your broadband performance? If so, there are a number of factors you might want to check before putting it down to bad luck. It may be that you, like me, are having your download bandwidth silently restricted by your ISP.

My broadband is supplied by BT and known as BT Business Broadband Share, I’ve been a BT customer for a number of years now and I think the equivalent (and, I notice, somewhat cheaper) current package is known as BT Business Total Broadband – Option 3. Both packages are advertised with the term ‘unlimited usage’ and both refer you, in the small print, to BT’s fair use policy.

I wouldn’t describe myself as a heavy user of broadband. I think I may have purchased and downloaded a dozen music files from the Internet, in my life, and I have used the BBC iPlayer to download a similar number of TV programmes, although I was careful to tick the little box that prevented the iPlayer from re-sharing those files after I had finished watching them. I download, perhaps, 6 large DVD size images from Microsoft’s MSDN subscriber site a year as part of my developer network subscription. I connect to the office with a VPN connection to collect email and occasionally use remote desktop or VNC to connect to one of several remote servers to perform evening or weekend maintenance. Other than that, I browse the web and listen again to a repeat of a Radio 4 audio programme on average about once a month. None of these things are particularly expensive in terms of bandwidth.

We are only a short distance from our local exchange and so usually comfortably achieve download bandwidth figures of over 6M bits/sec, but recently I had noticed much longer delays in displaying web pages from all sources and interrupted video streaming. We have a number of other PCs in the house on our wireless LAN and they were all experiencing similar problems so I checked the router (a BT supplied 2-Wire 1800) and noted that its broadband monitor showed low download and upload demand. This made me suspicious that there was a problem with the wireless network itself and so I checked the various settings, rebooted PCs and restarted the router and all of this made no difference at all to the download performance. I even chose to accept the firmware upgrade that the router was offering me in the hope that it might fix the problem but, rather ironically, the only visible difference I could detect was that the router’s nice bandwidth monitoring page has now been removed which means that I no longer have any indication of the upload or download bandwidth in use at any given point in time.

Noting that the download bandwidth was low, and knowing that our line normally performs well, I assumed then that the problem might be congestion at the exchange. There are good congestion checking tools at nildram and plusnet and plenty of information about broadband exchanges at samknows.com. These resources all suggested that my local exchange had no congestion issue.

Puzzled, I thought I’d monitor the bandwidth and see if I could determine a pattern. I initially suspected some form of interference from, say, a poor electrical connection or a fluorescent light, both of which can have this effect on broadband speeds, or so I had read.

You can check you broadband bandwidth with the excellent speed checker at speedtest.net which allows you to maintain a nice record of the measurements you have taken over a period of time or the less impressive BT offering at speedtester.bt.com which I found had to be run with administrative privileges on my Vista system but which does additionally provide you with what BT call your IP profile. There is an excellent description of this IP Profile at kitz.co.uk and a wealth of background information about ADSL too.

According to speedtester.bt.com my IP profile was 6.5Mbits/sec which was what I had expected:

IP profile for your line is - 6500 kbps
DSL connection rate: 448 kbps(UP-STREAM)  7616 kbps(DOWN-STREAM)
Actual IP throughput achieved during the test was - 2569 kbps

But depending on the time of day that I ran the test the IP throughput would vary from the expected 6340 kbps to as low as 379 kbps in the evening, rising through 3788 kbps after 11pm back to full speed after midnight and during the daytime. I saw this pattern repeat itself over a number of days.

Armed with this information I began to become suspicious that my line was being traffic shaped in some way. I called BT Business Broadband support and the nice lady there confirmed that my number was being restricted but she seemed surprised that I had not received an email alerting me to this. Broadband support said they were unable to give me any more information other than to say that it was due to excessive usage and gave me a phone number to ring to investigate further. That number turned out to be for reporting security breaches but they, in turn, gave me the email address: liteusage@btbroadbandoffice.com to which issues regarding traffic shaping and bandwidth restriction can be addressed.

I understood from the phone conversation that it was BT’s policy to review these restrictions at the billing points and that the restrictions could be gradually reduced if not completely removed when the excessive usage ceased. This meant that I should expect restrictions to be in place for several more weeks until BT saw fit to restore my service.

I emailed a request asking if they could help me to:

  1. Understand why the restriction has been applied .
  2. Help me get it released as soon as possible as it is interfering
    with my business use of this line.
  3. Give me an idea of the volume (or nature) of downloads that must have
    been present to have this restriction applied so that I can ensure
    it doesn’t happen again.

and the reply I got back said:

From the description you have given it appears that you are being
traffic shaped under the terms of our Fair Usage Policy, this is
why your connection is slow between 5pm and midnight.

and then followed this up with the surprising statement:

I am sorry but we cannot lift this restriction for you as our suppliers implement these measures.

Neither of these was particularly helpful or acceptable so I thought I’d better have a closer look at the fair use policy to see what I had done wrong and that is where the confusion really begins. The fair use policy doesn’t explain what BT consider fair use to be. I’d be only to happy to make a considered judgement about whether my £50/month unlimited broadband package was worth that amount if I could see what I was allowed to use it for. The policy explains in its three major sections:

Why do we have a fair use policy?

BT explain that their “… Fair Use Policy manages inappropriate use and makes sure the service can be used fairly by everyone”. And they define inappropriate use:

“A very small number of our customers use their broadband service inappropriately, for example when sending or downloading very large files, or using ‘peer to peer’ and file sharing software (which may be sending and receiving video and other large files constantly)”

So their concern appears to be related to the transmission of very large files and “peer to peer” or file sharing software. There is no mention of an acceptable download (or upload) usage figure, especially for their unlimited services.

How does the fair use Policy work?

Quite simply:

“If you regularly use the service inappropriately during peak hours, and we believe this is unfairly affecting other customers’ use of the service, we’ll manage your bandwidth during peak times (which could result in reduced service speeds).”

The policy clearly states that BT will control bandwidth for what they deem inappropriate use (earlier rather feebly defined as something involving large files and, possibly “peer to peer” and file sharing software) if this is done regularly (again undefined). There is no indication of how long they will continue to manage bandwidth for or an advanced warning that it might be about to happen. They do say that:

“If you continue to use your service inappropriately we reserve the right to end your agreement with us and will give you notice before doing so.”

But, of course, if you weren’t aware that you were using the service in an inappropriate way to begin with how are you supposed to know that you have continued to use it inappropriately. This seems to me to be an opportunity for BT to silently manage bandwidth to whatever extent suits them whilst continuing to charge the full rate for the service.

How do I know if the Fair Use Policy affects me?

BT say: “Our Fair Use Policy applies to all our customers but it’ll only actually affect you if you’re one of the very few customers who make inappropriate use of our service”. So another recursive and incomplete piece of information.

But don’t worry because:

“If you don’t use peer to peer, file sharing or other inappropriate software and you’re not, for example, constantly downloading or uploading: videos or very large files, you’re unlikely to be affected by our Fair Use Policy.”

So quite simply, don’t trouble your pretty little heads over our fair usage policy as it is unlikely to affect you. But hang on a minute,

  • I use the BBC iPlayer and that is peer-to-peer file sharing software,
  • I pay several hundred pounds a year to Microsoft to allow me to download operating system DVD images or sometimes videos from their web site and those are large files.

So, on both those counts BT can legitimately claim that I have fallen foul of their fair use policy and without warning restrict my broadband connection to whatever extent they wish and for however long they wish and still continue to bill me the same amount of money even though they neither specify the acceptable usage limits or provide me with any mechanism by which I can determine my current usage?

That doesn’t seem like fair use to me.



  1. I’ve just read your post and nodded along with every single thing you’ve said. After putting up with slow uTorrent speeds for the last month, I decided to call BT and ask them about it and finally, I got “Oh, your speed has been limited because you’ve been deemed a heavy user”. How the hell do you know if you’re heavy user if they don’t define it!

    Your post is well written and I intend to use parts of it in a complaint to Ofcom. I’m sick of BT.

    Comment by Neil — April 15, 2008 @ 12:29 pm

  2. Thank-you Neil. Feel free to use any bits you like if you think it will help.

    I’m approaching things from the other angle now, which is to attempt to get a much better handle on exactly what bandwidth I am using. Unfortunately my BT router is not very helpful when it comes to revealing what traffic it is moving so an additional piece of hardware is now required and a little bit of software. Once I’ve got them in place I’ll document them here. I’ll then be in a much stronger position when it comes to reasoning about my usage.

    That said, none of this should be required. If we’re to be measured and penalised then at least the limits and actuals should be out in the open for all to see and verifiable too.

    Comment by vextasy — April 15, 2008 @ 12:49 pm

  3. No, because then we could call BS on them. They don’t WANT you to know what restrictions they have. Imagine if laws were secret, and you had a total fear of running afoul of an unknown harsh law. Compare that to knowing exactly what you can get away with and what the maximum penalty is. They can make up any silly rule they want, if they don’t like your attitude or they offer a competing service. ;)

    Comment by Joe Whitehead — April 17, 2008 @ 9:56 am

  4. […] downloading such large amounts of data but, not wishing to experience another month of bandwidth restriction, I immediately disabled the TV Tonic service and the Tomato real time monitor showed the […]

    Pingback by Broadband Network Usage Monitoring and Measurement Tools « Avoiding the Chasm — April 17, 2008 @ 10:41 pm

  5. Well that made for a very interesting read, i gotta say BT and the other company’s who as yet are afraid to disclose there fair usage are playing very close to breaking there own terms, like the “Unlimited” banner on which help them sell these products are not truely unlimited as you are limited by the fair usage so please tell me how is that unlimited, its like going for all-you-can-eat but told you can only do it with 30mins of sitting down or you can only have as much salad as you want ??.

    While I’ve been with BT now for a while, but still locked into a 18 month contract i phoned BT to find out more regarding my “cap” as every night from 6:30pm – 11:30pm i only got 60kb/s, even tho they denied i was over there fair usage and that the amount to download was 50gig before they slapped the heavy user sticker, they did say well there could be congest as the exchange, so made for great reading of you post above for them links mate, thank you – i now see there is no congestion at my exchange.

    All in all i know one thing from BT and that they are good at giving you the run around!

    Sorry for the rant pal

    Comment by jay — July 2, 2008 @ 6:48 pm

  6. I am a heavy user, but then again I am paying for “unlimited”. I thought the whole point of contention ratios on teh adsl of 1:20 or 1:50 plus the logic in the DSLAMs at the exchange would statistically mux the available bandwidth. However I am restricted between 18:00 and 23:59 every day….. I know there are very few people sharing my circuit as its a 1:20 ratio… so I am annoyed because i am paying for unlimted, yet are restricted on bandwidth instead of a stat mux allocating bandwidth based on number of users…. BT suxs…

    Comment by Julian Guppy — September 21, 2008 @ 4:19 pm

  7. Julian, in the end I just gave up and installed monitoring equipment. I know that there are ISPs out there with less restrictive policies but I suspect that there are also many who are quietly introducing the same measures that BT have introduced.

    I found that there seemed to be little I could do to persuade BT to relax the restriction so I just waited until the restriction was lifted.

    I notice that if I were to purchase their BT Vision offering and I used it to download TV programmes the size of those downloaded programmes would not be counted as part of my broadband allowance. So it seems that they are able to favour their own content and products over their competitors equivalents.

    I’m going to wait another year and see what happens to the market as a whole and then decide which way to jump. When I’m not being restricted I’m very happy with the service.

    Comment by vextasy — September 21, 2008 @ 4:42 pm

  8. An excellent read – and it precisely mirrors the issue i’ve had with BT this evening.

    Ironically you get more warning and information if you’re on a metered package and my exasperation was measurable when the guy from BT explained that he couldn’t tell me what threshold i’d exceeded which led to my traffic being shaped.

    He also tried to claim that the shaping shouldn’t affect normal web browsing, but running at 0.5mbps it was quite clear the restriction was in place and even viewing pages on EBay was a troublesome and slow affair.

    I’ve been given the number of the BT Security Team so that I can ring and ‘explain to them what i’m using the connection’ for. I found it amazing that I now have to justify the use of my connection to them – i’m going to give them a ring to argue/moan at them tomorrow. Wish me luck – I think i’ll need it.

    I’m going to also ask a fair few technical questions about the nature of their traffic shaping if only to make a nuisance of myself. I’ll probably follow the whole thing up with a complaint to Ofcom. If they want to traffic shape then they need to quote precise figures and give users the means to measure this.

    Comment by Peter West — March 25, 2009 @ 10:48 pm

    • > I’ll probably follow the whole thing up with a complaint to Ofcom.
      > If they want to traffic shape then they need to quote precise figures and give users the means to measure this.
      It’ll be interesting to know how you get on. It’s like walking through treacle, painfully slow and draining.

      Comment by vextasy — March 26, 2009 @ 9:21 am

  9. I’ve just stumbled across this page and read it, agreeing with EVERYTHING in it.

    I’ve just fell foul of BT’s “fair use policy” recently. Despite being a BT customer for as long as I can remember, and despite long, frustrating phone calls to BT, it appears that I’ll just have to put up with it.

    After numberous calls to BT I finally got through to someone who sounded like he could help. I explained that I’m a software developer and I often (most days) have to transfer large files between home and work (backups incase it all goes horribly wrong). Not good enough says BT. And so from what was a 6.5mb/s average connection, I’m now limited to speeds that roughly equate to those I used to get around 12 years ago via dial up.

    I’d complain to Ofcom myself if I thought it would do any good, but it just seems that no matter what happens, these companies find ways around it.

    Comment by RedBob — September 4, 2009 @ 9:58 pm

  10. hi everyone :) ive been with bt for 6 weeks now, before i was with pipex i had my 2.5mb line unlimited 24/7 it was nice 2.5mb is enough to do everything i need i must of been using 150gb per month they never complained once and i was with them for years . i changed to bt and all of a sudden my torrents are 10kb/s from around dinner time till midnight.i cant stream video like i used to. so i called them up and they told me that i had gone over there 100gb fair usage limit so between 5pm and 12pm my speed is reduced to 1mb. this is alongside there normal day to day policy of restricting all non http traffic to around 10kb/s. so its no p2p after dinner and no iplayer,,google video,,,utube without freezes after five as i dont leave my desktop on over night this limits me a lot and im paying for a unlimited line there rubbish. when i phoned and was told about the fair usage policy the lady said 1mb was the lowest they were allowed to drop my speed to ie: they would do more if they were allowed . i got the feeling they would like to charge me for nothing if they were allowed. im paying 5 pounds a month more to be treated like this, i feel like ive been robbed .were do i stand on my 12 month contract. i singed up over the phone and wasnt told about any of this

    Comment by ste777 — November 2, 2009 @ 12:26 pm

    • @Ste777: Just had the exact same experience. Pipex did something that mildly annoyed me and now I’m trapped in a Kafkaesque nightmare with BT. I’ve not got near 100GB/month d/l because I can’t use torrents any more. I’m going to cut and run and see them in court.

      Comment by Mangadan — December 8, 2009 @ 12:31 am

  11. About traffic shaping:

    ISP and some NSP (Network Service Providers, where ISPs buy bandwidth from) use it to increase their profits while simultaneously allowing over subscription of said services, allowing more people onto their networks beyond their limited capacity.

    For example, let’s say you have a 10 Mbps symmetrical line or 10 Mbps going up and down at the same time. The ISP has a 100 Mbps trunk assigned to where you connect into them. Logically speaking if everyone has the same connection as you do, there would be 9 more ports of that 10 Mbps to use but in actuality, since they need a port on that 10 port managed router, there are only 7 more ports available. Here is the interesting thing, they also tend to take those two ports and connect it to other managed routers that have the same configuration. So even if you connect at 10 Mbps symmetrical connection and the link speed tells you that, you are “sharing” your bandwidth with other people on the network 100 Mbps link, more people than should be allowed on that network. Even if you use VLAN specifications and you get those damn “dedicated” business lines, that doesn’t mean you are on a dedicated circuit and dedicated network, where you are ensured to link up and get 10 Mbps all the time. It depends on how busy the network is and how many people are on your network doing the same stuff you are. Then the case of traffic shaping comes into play, they can limit you if you hit a certain “cap” or predefined amount of transfers in bytes, kilobytes, or megabytes per month, it’s their quota.

    There are so very few ISPs and NSPs out there that will be honest with you, I mean “truly” honest. There is no such thing as an “unlimited” network connection in business. I believe they should be more honest and take the word “unlimited” out as it’s a total and complete lie.

    If you want to know if you are being traffic shaped, this is how you can tell. Stop the so called abusive behavior for a month, let it drop back down. Then test the connection at different times of the day with that speedtest.net and do it multiple times with different locations on the map, some going out way out of your country, like Asia and watch the stuff. Also post the information to their site so people can see what your ISP is doing, so they can avoid their service (nothing beats a big black eye).

    Now, tell them to prove that it is the provider of their services that is doing the traffic shaping, and you want it in writing, be very adamant about that. Then if and when you have it, go at the provider with that information (if it’s true) and ask them what they are attempting to do since you have “contract” with the other company and that want the problems ceased immediately, again be adamant, get it in writing, don’t let them rest. A lot of what these people do is put you on hold and don’t want to tell you the truth about their operations.

    Nail them for false advertising, false pretenses within a contract, outright failure to hold their end of the deal on the contract. Since the fair use policies don’t actually give a “number” or capped amount of bandwidth, it is up to them to update that information for legal purpose and to not “mislead” people purposely. If people really understood what ISP really do and how they do it, they would most likely go out of business that same year fairly quickly.

    There are two different forms of NSPs really, there is the retailing type (which sells of their excess bandwidth to said company like possibly your ISP), then there is the type that has massive bandwidth and low latency, those are wholesalers, they own their computers which make up the backbone networks of the Internet itself. Those wholesalers don’t and I repeat, don’t traffic shape you, it’s it in their best interest not to. Where as the retail type will and in some cases excessively.

    I see it as it’s okay to make a profit but not to the point where it makes people hurt and not to violate terms of a contract with said party or parties. All the terms of the contract must be in plain language with nothing hidden and has to be available on your site all the time, no need for passwords or logins to see the page.

    Just remember this, every contract when you negotiate or renegotiate is changeable. Meaning you can add or delete stuff on there, then resubmit for them to read and go over it. Most people just sign the contract and go with those vague legal terms. Don’t do that, it’s dangerous.

    It’s very rare that an ISP will truly be honest and honor their end of the contract because it means they have to be honest in business and can’t screw people over (take the money and run).

    By the way, business service Internet and best effort Internet services with a lot of ISPs are the exact same service, you just pay more for the business class. Ask for the specific differences in written form (not on the ISP), if they differ and it’s in your contract you signed, you can call authorities on them for not doing what it says in the contract.

    The quickest way for them to get nice with you is to restore your services and not screw with you again but that’s not going to happen, a lot of ISPs have sh*t list or black list of people that use their connections as they were created and intended for as unlimited, they call those people enemies of their company because you hold them to their word.

    How about this, there needs to be a company world wide that doesn’t screw with their customers.

    I was thinking of possibly starting this company because, yes, I too have had this happen to me. Competition for subscribers is the only way you can get a company in most cases to be “more honest” with people, if the competitor is a better deal and spells everything in plain language with no hidden terms, fees, taxes, nor agenda that makes it really hard on the already operating companies that are screwing with their customers. They must think we are all stupid or something.

    There should be a law put into place in each company where “limiting a connection to the Internet” if someone is paying for the speed and low latency should be made blatantly illegal and have contact information in the government to turn in companies that break those laws. Thus, restoring your connect to the full potential, making them pay for what they have done, and not passing the penalty fees on the subscribers (punishing them for turning them in), etc.

    Comment by Alex — November 13, 2009 @ 4:21 pm

  12. Here is an interesting fact of the industry, many “unlimited” Internet connections are not actually that.

    That have a “Bandwidth Cap” of 3, 5, 10, and some rare cases up to 100 GB (if you have a 1 Gbps or faster connection to the Internet).

    Now the standard is 3 and 5 GB (Gigabytes) per month limit cap.

    Look at it this way, if you have an 8 Mbps / 1 Mbps line asymmetrical line. Download is 1 MB/s and upload is 125kb/s, this is without IP payload compression (some people call it “PowerBoost”).

    In general ISPs count upload and download speed as one count total.
    So if you were just to focus on just the download side. That you could logically, do it this way.

    1 Megabyte a second, and the way in which the ISP do the counting of Megabytes and Gigabytes aren’t base 16 like they are on your computer, they do it base 10, so when you see 3 GB they mean 3 billion bytes and not 3.072 billion bytes. Whip out a calculator and see how fast if you were continually download in time you could deplete that cap before you got traffic shaped.

    It’s pretty damn low. Then realize again your upload speed is configured into that cap too, not just that download speed. It’s like you fly through it so fast doing stuff like watching videos, downloading games, etc.

    Assuming you get 1 MB a second download (there is other stuff to look at in the packets that don’t physically allow you to get 1 MB a second but you get close).

    1 MB a second, is 60 MB a minute, and 60 minutes of that speed, is 3660 MB or 3.660 GB. So, if you have that kind of connection you are already in the hole.

    A lot of connections I see are getting around 900 to 956 kbps even if you think you should get 1 Mbps download, it’s the control and framing that get in the way of the packets, the ISP has you pay for that too but then again that is part of your connection on the network whether it’s on your LAN and or their too, it’s just an Ethernet thing, you have to deal with it. There are things you can do to make your Ethernet connection more efficient but that is for another time.

    So, if I calculate with 900KB per second and up to an hour, I get the 900KB, 54 MB, 3240 MB (3.240 GB), still, you are over the cap.
    They did this on purpose because they knew that you would go over it and a lot of people do, it’s not a small percentage like they claim. Some ISPs or wireless providers charge you up the arse in overage fees instead of cutting your speed down via traffic shaping.

    Let’s look at it from a perspective on how not to hit the cap but not go over it.

    3.0 GB (or 3000 MB), divide by 3600 (since you are getting down to the seconds). Which would land you in the 833KB range now multiple it by 8 to get speed you would be getting in equivalence.
    6.66 MBs a second. No more than that really if you go above, you are risking it. But that is only doing the download side of things, if you add in the upload speed which should be done on the series of equations just done, your download connection speed must be much lower so you don’t hit the cap in under an hour.

    The 3 to 5 GB per month cap limit is very unreasonable with a broadband connection.

    How it should be calculated is your speed grade, upload and download added together, like say, it’s 1.125 MBs a second, then multiply it out for an hour, then a day (24 hours) then on worse case scenario of 31 days in a month.

    Which would be a little over 3 TB (Terabytes base 10), that’s huge as compared to the measly 3 GB per month limit.

    Now assuming you don’t have IP payload compression being used on your connection, that is what it would be. ISPs would say you’re crazy but then again that would be “truly unlimited” if that cap was set that high. Meaning without the IP payload compression, you could never hit the cap put into place.

    See how many ISPs and NSPs out there are “that honest”.

    Comment by Alex — November 13, 2009 @ 4:59 pm

  13. hi :) thanks for the reply alex. Ive got to watch there adverts telling all there prospective customers about 20mb speeds but never a mention of there restrictive traffic shapping policies or there 100gb download cap. just been on the phone with them, they want a fee to cancel so ill just have to sit it out. if your thinking of getting bt broadband and your reading this dont there rubbish.

    Comment by ste777 — November 23, 2009 @ 8:44 am

    • Dont sit it out, take all the evidence you can find on how they have riped you off using the fair use policy that they cant tell you about so you had no idea or any letter confirming your not so fair use(LOL) and let it ride and canccel all payments to the service. (they sold you a package you cant use) and you’ll find it wont get to no court you will just be disconnected and then you can go to other provider.. Some other providers will even pay you contract leaving fee to other isp’s if you sign up with them..

      Comment by jamie — February 18, 2012 @ 1:27 pm

  14. Pmsl.. hahaha,, i jsut noticed how old these comments are!!!!! awe well at leat some people might read them and take some good information from them like i did!! :)

    Comment by jamie — February 18, 2012 @ 1:34 pm

  15. Best try to use Technitum MAC changer – install that software and be sure to run it as admin, make sure anti-virus or security software does not limit or block it. Login to BT Home Hub, Reboot it, just as you click to reboot it use Technitum MAC address changer and change your MAC and now utorrent will have high speeds again, for a while at least, sometimes it only lasts 30 mins sometimes longer, still it does work, until you get off BT contract and with an ISP that does not traffic shape or throttle your traffic, such as bethere. Good Luck!

    Comment by AC — April 10, 2012 @ 8:08 pm

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